Generally speaking, glass raw materials will form viscous liquid after combustion and dissolution. In order to make it cool, blow molding is usually used. Models of various materials, such as wood, clay, metal, etc., are used to make the required molds in advance. After cooling, open the model and pour the molten glass into the model. It is generally used for equipment that cannot be blown with glass. Most factories can use this method for mass production.
The other is blowing method, that is, blowing glass, that is, taking an appropriate amount of glass solution and putting it on one end of the iron blowing pipe. Blow on one side and spin on the other. With skill, scissors or pliers are used to shape it.
1、 Cold working method
1. Color painting is painting on the surface of glass at room temperature. Some need to be heated and fixed, while others don't. This process can also add gold foil and silver foil into metal pigment, which is called gold foil decorative painting.
2. Glaze is a painting and sound painting technique that needs to be reheated. On the surface of glass objects, use glaze pigment to draw patterns, and then heat the furnace to fix the pigment to prevent it from falling off.
3. Using the slotted lead as the wire frame, combined with the process of thousands of colored glass plates, it is required to draw a small plan, draw a sketch of equal size according to the plan, determine the shape and size of each color, cut the glass plate correctly, and melt and weld the lead into a large mirror.
4. No need to print, print or print on glass or paper.
5. Relief uses double or multi-layer colored glass, relief out of three-dimensional patterns, exposing the background color, forming relief effect.
6. The cutting wheel is used for cutting decorative patterns, block surfaces, lines and other decorative objects on glass objects, or cutting large surfaces into shapes. Sometimes, the two-color nested glass can show the special effect of different colors inside and outside.
7. The technology of engraving decorative patterns and patterns on glass surface with diamond or metal engraving tools or engraving pens can be divided into wheel engraving, point engraving and plane engraving due to different tools used.
8. Etch on the glass plate, draw the figure and contour line, and then etch different depth patterns with chemical acid.
9. After sandblasting, cover the whole glass with adhesive tape, remove the unnecessary part of the pattern with a cutter, and then place the sandblasting machine. The high spraying force of emery is used to make the glass foggy.
10. Using the rotating grinding wheel as the grinding table, water and emery are mixed to grind smooth glass products.
11. The planer takes the rotating leather wheel as the platform, puts the glass on it, and polishes the planer.
12. Stick the workpiece into the furnace for heating, and use the characteristics of glass to heat the melting surface to produce brightness.
13. Glue the glass into a shape.
14. Composites are made of glass and other materials.
2、 Thermal manufacturing
(the manufacturing method between melting point (1450 degrees) and freezing point (450 degrees) is called thermal engineering)
1. A hot stencil is injected into the glass and molded into a pattern.
2. In sand mold casting, the mold is pressed into the sand of medium depth and acetylene is sprayed to prevent the sand mold from falling off. Put the glass paste into the sand mold, take it out after the glass is slightly cold, and then grind it.
3. One of the earliest techniques for making glass windows was to mix the mud and horse dung into a pericardium, then dip the hot glass paste into the main body of the container, and then outline the pattern around the glass wire on the outside picture, and then slowly cool down and dig out the embryo nucleus.
4. Torch thermoplastic is made by a small spray gun or torch, which is also known as torch thermoplastic. It only uses various colors of boron glass or sodium glass color stick, and uses stretching, twisting, winding and other technologies to form a continuous shape, which is suitable for small and delicate performance of glass beads, animals and plants. Due to the different glass rods used, they can be divided into solid, hollow and drawn thermoplastic. In addition, they can be combined with color paintings to increase the interest of the works.
5. Blowing originated in the Roman Empire in A.D., and is still the most important, widely used and most diverse production method in glass technology. The process of blow molding is to immerse the molten glass paste into the blow pipe to form bubbles, then use tools to make thermoplastic modeling, and then use another blow pipe dipped in a small amount of glass bridge to make the bottom, and slowly knock down the workpiece.
6. Dewaxing casting method: after the wax mold is wrapped with refractory gypsum, the glass raw materials and the empty mold are put into the furnace for heating at the same time. At high temperatures, the glass flows slowly into the mold and is dewaxed in the furnace. Take out the plaster mould slowly, and then grind it smooth.
7. In the powder casting method, glass blocks and glass powder are filled into a pre designed model and then heated in a furnace to form a complete glass product.
8. The furnace heating design method is the heating production process between 750 ℃ and 850 ℃.
9. Thermoplastic melting method: the first cut glass or glass sheet with different patterns is placed on the ceramic plate and heated in the furnace to form a glass plate, which is usually changed by other methods.
10. The glass material is placed on the designed clay. The glass softened and began to sag. Then it can fall freely.